Events This Week in Scottish History
 

18 August 1746 Arthur Elphinstone, Lord Balmerino, was beheaded at Tower Hill for his part in the '45 Rising.  On the scaffold he said "I am afraid there are some who may think my behaviour bold;" and, speaking to a gentleman near him, added, "Remember, sir, what I tell you; it arises from a confidence in God, and a clear conscience."
 
18 August 1864
 
Elsie Inglis, Scottish Suffragette, born.
 
19 August 1560 James Crichton "The Admirable Crichton", scholar, soldier and adventurer, born.
 
19 August 1646 Alexander Henderson, Presbyterian theologian, died.  He was instrumental in establishing Presbyterianism as the Church of Scotland and the adoption of the National Covenant.
 
19 August 1745
Prince Charles Edward Stuart "The Young Pretender"  raised his Standard at Glenfinnan at the start of the '45 Rising.
 
19 August 1808 James Nasmyth, engineer and inventor and builder of the first steam hammer, born.
 
20 August 1560
Mary Queen of Scots  lands at Leith.
 
20 August 1940
In 2010 the 20th August was chosen as the date to mark the 70th Anniverary of The Battle of the Britain, as it was on this day in 1940 that Winston Churchill made his speech containing the famous line "Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few".
 
21 August 1689 Battle of Dunkeld. The Jacobite Highlanders victory at Killiecrankie was shortlived as they were defeated by the newly formed Cameronians at Dunkeld.
 
21 August 1754 William Murdoch (aka Murdock), inventor of coal-gas lighting, born at New Cumnock, Ayr.
 
21 August 1930 Princess Margaret, daughter of the future  George VI and Queen Elizabeth, born at Glamis Castle.
 
22 August 1138  The Battle of the Standard was fought near Northallerton, Yorkshire. The battle was fought as part of David I's support for
Matilda, a claimant of the English throne.
 
22 August 1642
 

Charles I raised his Standard at Nottingham at the start of the Civil War.
 
23 August 1305  
The execution of Sir William Wallace, hanged, drawn and quartered at Smithfield, London. The site is marked by a memorial on
the wall of St Bartholomew's Hospital, West Smithfield.
 
23 August 1582
The Ruthven Raid James VI was abducted by dissident nobles including the Earls of Gowrie, Mar and Glencairn who wished to remove the king and government from the influence of theDuke of Lennox and James Stuart, the Earl of Arran, by imprisoning him in Ruthven Castle.
A Short History of Scotland, by Andrew Lang on Undiscovered Scotland: XXII: Reign of James VI
 
24 August 1198 Alexander II born in Haddington, Lothian.
 
24 August 1482  Berwick-upon-Tweed was officially declared part of England after changing hands on numerous occasions in the past. It
received special mention in government documents along with England and Scotland. In 1856 Britain signed a peace treaty with
Russia after the Crimean War but Berwick-on-Tweed was omitted. The town was technically at war with Russia for the next 113
years until peace was declared in 1966.
 
24 August 1560
The Scottish Parliament passed a law  establishing the Scottish Reformation and the Church of Scotland, presbyterian in government. 2010 is the 450th Anniversary.
 
24 August 1682 John Maitland, Duke of Lauderdale, Scottish politician, died. He was Charles II's deputy in Scotland.
 
24 August 1947 First Edinburgh International Festival.
 
25 August 1330 Teba  
The Battle of Teba   This is  the origin of  the real "Braveheart" story. When Robert the Bruce died in 1329 his heart was removed and embalmed.  According to many accounts, starting with 14th Century John Barbour's "The Bruce", and  including that of the  Lockhart family, whose name derives from the subsequent adventure,  as  The Bruce requested, his heart was to be taken to Jerusalem by Sir James Douglas, known as "The Black Douglas" , accompanied by Sir William St Clair of Roslin, Sir Robert and Sir Walter Logan, Sir William Keith, Sir Alan Cathcart and Sir Symon Loccard of Lee, and one other knight unnamed. 
A monument in Teba reads "Sir James Douglas most loyal comrade in arms of Robert the Bruce King of Scots while on his way to present the Heart of Bruce at the church of the Most Holy Sepulchre Jerusalem the good Sir James turned aside to support King Alfonso XI capture the strategic Castle of the Stars Teba & was slain in battle August 25 1330"
 
25 August 1819 James Watt, developer of the steam engine, died.
 
25 August 1875 John Buchan, novelist and statesman who served as Governor General of Canada died.
 
25 August 1930 The actor, Sir Sean Connery, was born in the Fountainbridge area of Edinburgh.
 
25 August 1942 The Duke of Kent and all but the rear gunner Flt/Sgt Andrew Jack were killed when his Sunderland Flying Boat W4026 crashed
into the Eagle's Rock, near Berriedale, Caithness
.
 
26 August 1612
300  Scottish Mercenaries, in 3 companies of 100 each  led by acting Lieutenant Colonel (substantive Captain) Alexander Ramsay were ambushed and defeated by Norwegian Militia at Kringen.  For a long time the Norwegian's believed one of the company commanders from Caithness, George Sinclair, killed there, had been the leader and the battle has long been associated with Sinclair.  Of the 134 who survived the battle, only 18 were taken to Oslo, and 4 officers sent to Copenhagen, 4 repatriated, and 1 junior officer was later sent home. Initial Norwegian reports said there were 550 Scots and 450 Norwegians present.  By the 19th century the  Scots number had inflated to 900.  2012 marked the 400th Anniversary.
 
26 August 1875
 
John Buchan, novelist and statesman who served as Governor General of Canada born in Perth.
 

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Updated 18/08/2018