Events This Week in Scottish History
 

20 October 1713 Archibald Pitcairn, physician, died in Edinburgh. He was buried at Greyfriars.
 
21 October 1805
The Battle of Trafalgar. 7% of Nelson's force were Scots.  5 of his 27 captains were Scots, the surgeon who attended his fatal injury was Scots, as was the woman who embalmed his body, and the youngest sailor a 10 year old cabin boy from Leith.  Many of the fleet’s sails were from the jute mills in Dundee, and a number of the fleet’s cannon were from the Carron iron works in Falkirk.
 
22 October 1775 Dr Alexander Murray, distinguished orientalist,  born Dunkitterick, Kirkcudbright.
 
23 October 1295
The 'Auld Alliance' treaty was signed between John Balliol, King of Scots, and Philippe IV of France. It provided for mutual military help against the English and was renewed by Robert The Bruce in 1326.  It was a military and diplomatic alliance but for most it brought benefits such as pay as mercenaries in France's forces and trade which brought French wine to Scotland.
 
23 October 1612 Annexation of the lands of Orkney to the Crown.

Reference
Records of the Parliaments of Scotland

See also The Annexation of the earldom of Orkney and lordship of Shetland to the Crown, 20th February 1472
 

24 October 1765 Sir James Mackintosh born at Aldourie, near Inverness. He trained as a doctor and barrister, but also became a journalist, judge, administrator, professor, philosopher and politician.
 
25 October 1761
The Coronation of George III.

 
25 October 1415
The Battle of Agincourt (Azincourt).  A smaller English Army (about 9,000) lead by Henry V defeated a larger French Army  (about 12,000) including, it is said, some Scots and Bretons, following which the French invoked the "Auld Alliance".  Sir Alexander Buchanan was sent over with a force of 7,000, and six years later the Franco-Scottish Army defeated the English at the Battle of Baugé, where Buchan killed the English King's brother, the Duke of Clarence. The Scots fought with the French against the English to the end of the "Hundred Years War". Shakespeare has Capt Jamy, a Scot, in Henry V's Army. James I was a captive in England at the time and with Henry V at the Siege of Melun, in 1420, when he tried to persuade the Scots to surrender.
 
25 October 1854
The 93rd Sutherland Highlanders fought in what became known as the "Thin Red Line" at the Battle of Balaclava.
 
26 October 1327
 

Elizabeth de Burgh, Queen Consort of Robert the Bruce  died at Cullen Castle, Banffshire, and was buried at Dunfermline Abbey.
(other sources say 27th October).
 
26 October 1845
Carolina Oliphant, Baroness Nairne, died. Writing as Mrs Bogan of Bogan she adapted Scottish airs, many with Jacobite themes, and amongst her most popular are "Charlie is my darling" and "Will ye no come back again?".
 
26 October 1911
Sorley MacLean, poet, born on the Island of Raasay.  He died on the 24th November 1996.
 
27 October 1797 Dr Andrew Combe, physiologist, born in Edinburgh.
 
27 October 1854
William Alexander Smith, founder of The Boys' Brigade, born in Thurso.
 

Other events in October and November
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Updated 20/10/2019