Events in Scottish History
Scotland's Early History
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BC 3000
Skara Brae, Orkney.
BC 2600
Ring of Brodgar, Orkney.
BC 400

The Celts arrive in Ireland and Scotland.
BC-AD 100
Brochs built in Scotland.
Quintus Petilius Cerealis, Governor of Roman Britain, sent a reconnaissance expedition into South West Scotland.
Agricola crossed the Clyde and engaged the Celts.
Calgacus united the Celtic Caledonian tribes and with 10,000 of his menwas killed by the Roman Army led by Agricola at the Battle of Mons Graupius.
c. 85 The Romans abandoned their fort at Inchtuthil.
85 Agricola was recalled to Rome.
90 The Romans evacuated all their positions north of the Forth.

Hadrian built the wall that bears his name 80 miles long, from the Solway to the Tyne.
The Antonine Wall, turf built, from the Clyde to the Forth.
154 The Romans abandoned the Antonine Wall.
Hadrian's Wall overrun and the Romans were defeated in Caledonia.
196 The Romans withdrew from Northern Britain.
Severus campaigned in Southern Scotland.
297 The Picts were first mentioned in Roman Literature by Eumenius.
c. 360 St Ninian who preached Christianity in Scotland, born.
c. 360 Picts and Scots crossed Hadrian's Wall.
367 Picts and Scots invade Northern England.
368 Picts and Scots with Saxon Tribes attacked London.
-c. 370
General Theodosius drove the Picts and Scots out of Roman Britain.
383 The Roman Legions began to evacuate from Britain.
390 General Flavius Stilicho came to Britain to drive out Pictish Invaders.
c. 397 St Ninian established a monastery, called Candida Casa, at Whithorn, Galloway.
418 Picts and Scots driven from southern England by Anglo-Saxons.
428 Teutonic Woden worshipping migrants established themselves in Lowland Scotland.
c. 432
St Ninian died.
c. 500
Fergus Mór mac Erc, ancestor of the Scots Kings of Dalriada died.
c. 503 The Scots left Ireland to establish the Kingdom of Dalriada in what is now Argyll.
c. 521
St Columba born.
c. 537
King Arthur killed at the Battle of Camlann.
563 Iona community established by St Columba.
565 Celtic Christianity established in Pictland.
c. 573
St Kentigern in south eastern Scotland.
574 St Columba ordained Áedán mac Gabhráin as Kong of the Scots Dál Riata.
c. 585
Bridei mac Mailchon, King of the Picts, died.
8/9 June 597 St Columba died.
603 Áedán mac Gabhráin defeated by Ethelfirth at the Battle of Degsastan.
13 January 603 St Kenigern also known as St Mungo died.
c. 608
Áedán mac Gabhráin died.

Domnall Brecc King of Scots, until killed by Strathclyde Britons at the Battle of Strathcarron.
St Cuthbert entered Melrose.

Bridei son of Bili, King of Picts.
20 May 685 Battle of Nechtansmere, south of Forfar in Angus, Picts under Bridei son of Bili, defeat the Angles effectively halting their northern progress.
  710 Roman Christianity established in Pictland.
711 Picts slaughtered by Nothumbrians at the Pain of Manaw.
1 September 714 St Giles, patron saint of Edinburgh and Elgin, died.
c. 712 Egbert arrived at Iona an persuaded the Clergy to accept Roman usage.
717 Expulsion of Iona monks from Pictland by Nechtan.
c. 780

The Book of Kells begun on Iona.
The Norse Era, Norse invade and settle the British Isles.

794 Viking raids in the Hebrides.
795 Viking raids on Iona, Inishbofin and Skye.
802 Viking raid plundered and burned Iona.
806 Viking raid killed 68 monks on Iona.
c. 810
Johannes Scotus Eriugena born in Ireland.
c. 811

Constantine, son of Fergus, King of Scots and Picts.

Oengus II, son of Fergus, King of Scots and Picts.
839 Picts massacred by Vikings at Forteviot.
Kenneth MacAlpin crowned the first King of Scotland, and united the Kingdoms of the Scots and the Picts.

Donald I King of Scots.

Norse King of Dublin, Olaf the White campaigned against the Picts.

Olaf the White and Ivar sacked Dumbarton.
879 Ecclesia Scoticana first used as a term.
889 Giric, King of Scots, and Eochaid son of Rhun, King of Strathclyde Britons, expelled.
900 Strathclyde annexed by Scotland. The Strathclyde aristocracy migrated to North Wales.

Constantine II King of Scots.
903 Ivar's grandsons plundered Dunkeld.
904 Ivar grandson of Ivar killed by Scots at Strathearn.
934 Athelstan of Wessex invaded Scotland.
936 Constantine II, Olaf Gothfrithsson and Owen of Strathclyde defeated by Athelstan at the Battle of Brunaburh.

Malcolm I King of Scots.
945 Edmund invaded Cumbria and granted it to Malcolm I.

Indulf King of Scots. Edinburgh occupied and Scots annexed Lothian.
The descendants of  Constantine I succeed in excluding the descendants of his brother Aed to the throne.
989 Gothfrith Haroldsson, King of the Hebrides, killed by men of Dál Riata.
  25   March   1005   Kenneth II killed by Malcolm II.  
1006 Malcolm II's unsuccessful raid on Durham.
1018 Malcolm II gained Lothian after defeating the Saxons at the Battle of Carham.

Source: The Scottish Invention of America, Democracy and Human Rights, Klieforth and Munro, 2004, ISBN 0-7618-2791



Updated 09/02/2020