Events in Scottish History
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1 August 1545
Andrew Melville born Baldovie.  Scholar, theologian and religious reformer, his reputation brought scholars from the Europe to study at Glasgow and St Andrews.
1 August 1714
Death of Queen Anne; George I, Elector of Hanover becomes King.
1 August 1747
Act of Proscription of Tartan that followed the 1745 Rising.
2 August 1696
Robert Campbell of Glenlyon, who had taken part in the Massacre of Glencoe died in poverty in Bruges.
2 August 1922
Alexander Graham Bell, inventor of the telephone, died in Nova Scotia.
3 August 1460
James II killed by an exploding cannon at the siege of Roxburgh Castle.
3 August 1573  
Sir William Kirkcaldy of Grange executed, after defending Edinburgh Castle on behalf of Mary Queen of Scots from May 1568 to May 1573.
4 August 1900
Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon, the future Queen Elizabeth, the Queen Mother, born.
4 August 1914 Britain declared war on Germany.
His Majesty's Government informed the German Government on August 4th, 1914, that, unless a satisfactory reply to the request of His Majesty's Government for an assurance that Germany would respect the neutrality of Belgium was received by midnight of that day, His Majesty's Government would feel bound to take all steps in their power to uphold that neutrality and the observance of a treaty to which Germany was as much a party as Great Britain.
The result of this communication having been that His Majesty's Ambassador at Berlin had to ask for his passports, His Majesty's Government have accordingly formally notified the German Government that a state of war exists between the two countries, as from 11 p.m. to-day.
The First World War had begun on 28th July 1914 with Austria-Hungary's declaration of war with Serbia.
5 August 1305
Sir William Wallace betrayed and handed over to the English.
5 August 1388
Battle of Otterburn in which Scots defeat Henry Percy, (Hotspur) but James, Earl Douglas, died out of sight of his army.  
"A dead man won the field" Sir John Sinclair, Sir Walter Sinclair and Sir James Lindsay took up the dying Douglas's banner and went back into the battle crying "Douglas".
Tom Steel, Scotland's Story ISBN 0006370039 p 57
(English sources say the battle was on 19th August:
John Sadler, Border Fury, England and Scotland at War 1296-1568 ISBN 1405840226 p 275.)
6 August 1881
Sir Alexander Fleming, discoverer of penicillin, born.
7 August 1548
The young Mary Queen of Scots sailed from Dumbarton Castle to Roscoff, France, following the Treaty of Haddington, which betrothed her to Francis, the Dauphin of France.
8 August 1503
James IV married Margaret Tudor, daughter of  Henry VII of England. The marriage was known as the Union of the Thistle and the Rose.
9 August 1757
Thomas Telford, the civil engineer born in Westerkirk,  near Dumfries.
10 August 1460  
James III crowned at Kelso Abbey.
11 August 1306 Battle of Dalry.  Robert the Bruce defeated by John MacDougall of Lorne, kinsman of John Comyn.
11 August 1862
General Sir David Y Henderson, the first Officer Commanding (OC) the Royal Flying Corps, born in Glasgow.
11 August 1892
Hugh MacDiarmid (Christopher Murray Grieve) born in Langholm in Dumfriesshire.
12 August 1332 Battle of Dupplin Moor near Perth in which Edward Balliol defeated the Regent, Earl of Mar.
12 August 1990 Roy Williamson, Scottish folk musician and songwriter, died. A founder member of the folk group, "The Corries", for whom he wrote the song which has since become Scotland's unofficial National Anthem, "Flower of Scotland".
The Corries

13 August 1888
John Logie Baird, inventor of the first television, born in Helensburgh.
13 August 1907
Sir Basil Spence, architect of Edinburgh University Library, born.
14 August 1040 Duncan I killed in battle at Pitgaveny leading his army against Macbeth.
14 August 1863
Sir Colin Campbell  died. Born Colin MacIver, he adopted the surname of his uncle who sponsored his military education.  At the Battle of Balaclava in 1854 as Commander of the Highland Brigade of the 1st Division he lead the 93rd Sutherland Highlanders as the "Thin Red Line" repulsing the Russian Cavalry. He sought and obtained permission to wear the Highland Bonnet instead of the Cocked Hat that went with his appointment.

15 August 1057 Macbeth killed in battle with Malcolm Canmore at Lumphanan.
15 August 1645

The Battle of Kilsyth. James Graham, the Marquis of Montrose, defeated General Baillie's Covenanter Army at Colzium, Kilsyth.
15 August 1771
Sir Walter Scott born to a Walter Scott , a Writer to the Signet, and Anne (née Rutherford).
15 August 1822 George IV arrived at Leith on board "The Royal George" at the start of his visit to Edinburgh. His visit to Scotland was organised by Sir Walter Scott, and led to a revival of interest in Scotland.
15 August 1916 Wing Commander Gordon Sinclair, who commander "A" Flight No 310 Squadron, the first Czech Unit formed in the UK, during the Battle of Britain, born. He died in 2005.
15 August 1945
VJ Day. Victory over Japan. 2015 is the 70th Anniversary, marked by commemorative service in St Martin-in-the-Fields Church, Trafalgar Square and a Drumhead Service and Wreath-laying ceremony on Horse Guards Parade followed by a reception in the grounds of Westminster Abbey, hosted by The Royal British Legion.
16 August 1445 Saint Laon Church from Alliance France-Ecosse where Margaret of Scotland was buried
Margaret Stewart, daughter of James I  and Lady Joan Beaufort, died in Châlons.  She had married Louis XI son of Charles VII and Maria d'Anjou on 24 June 1436 in Tours Cathedral. 
16 August 1766 Carolina Oliphant, Baroness Nairne, born. Writing as Mrs Bogan of Bogan she adapted Scottish airs, many with Jacobite themes, and amongst her most popular are "Charlie is my darling" and "Will ye no come back again?".
17 August 1424 Battle of Verneuil Memorial from Alliance France-Ecosse
Battle of Verneuil sur Avre during the Hundred Years War. French and Scottish forces were defeated by the English with losses of around 9,000 and John Stewart, Earl of Buchan and Sir Archibald Douglas were killed along with many French nobles. In France this is considered by some as important as Agincourt.
Les Valois directs Verneuil sur Avre

17 August 1560
The Scottish Parliament ratifies the 25 Articles of the Scots Confession, leading the way to the Scottish Reformation. 2010 was the 450th Anniversary.
17 August 1876 James Eric Drummond, 7th Earl of Perth, born. He was a diplomat and the first General Secretary of the League of Nations.
17 August 2010
Bill Millin, piper to Lord Lovat at D Day, died, aged 88. 
18 August 1746 Arthur Elphinstone, Lord Balmerino, was beheaded at Tower Hill for his part in the '45 Rising.  On the scaffold he said "I am afraid there are some who may think my behaviour bold;" and, speaking to a gentleman near him, added, "Remember, sir, what I tell you; it arises from a confidence in God, and a clear conscience."
18 August 1864
Elsie Inglis, Scottish Suffragette, born.
19 August 1560 James Crichton "The Admirable Crichton", scholar, soldier and adventurer, born.
19 August 1646 Alexander Henderson, Presbyterian theologian, died.  He was instrumental in establishing Presbyterianism as the Church of Scotland and the adoption of the National Covenant.
19 August 1745
Prince Charles Edward Stuart "The Young Pretender"  raised his Standard at Glenfinnan at the start of the '45 Rising.
19 August 1808 James Nasmyth, engineer and inventor and builder of the first steam hammer, born.
20 August 1560
Mary Queen of Scots  lands at Leith.
21 August 1689 Battle of Dunkeld. The Jacobite Highlanders victory at Killiecrankie was shortlived as they were defeated by the newly formed Cameronians at Dunkeld.
21 August 1754 William Murdoch (aka Murdock), inventor of coal-gas lighting, born at New Cumnock, Ayr.
21 August 1930 Princess Margaret, daughter of the future  George VI and Queen Elizabeth, born at Glamis Castle.
22 August 1138  The Battle of the Standard was fought near Northallerton, Yorkshire. The battle was fought as part of David I's support for
Matilda, a claimant of the English throne.
22 August 1642

Charles I raised his Standard at Nottingham at the start of the Civil War.
23 August 1305  
The execution of Sir William Wallace, hanged, drawn and quartered at Smithfield, London. The site is marked by a memorial on
the wall of St Bartholomew's Hospital, West Smithfield.
23 August 1582
The Ruthven Raid James VI was abducted by dissident nobles including the Earls of Gowrie, Mar and Glencairn who wished to remove the king and government from the influence of theDuke of Lennox and James Stuart, the Earl of Arran, by imprisoning him in Ruthven Castle.
A Short History of Scotland, by Andrew Lang on Undiscovered Scotland: XXII: Reign of James VI
24 August 1198 Alexander II born in Haddington, Lothian.
24 August 1482  Berwick-upon-Tweed was officially declared part of England after changing hands on numerous occasions in the past. It
received special mention in government documents along with England and Scotland. In 1856 Britain signed a peace treaty with
Russia after the Crimean War but Berwick-on-Tweed was omitted. The town was technically at war with Russia for the next 113
years until peace was declared in 1966.
24 August 1560
The Scottish Parliament passed a law  establishing the Scottish Reformation and the Church of Scotland, presbyterian in government. 2010 is the 450th Anniversary.
24 August 1682 John Maitland, Duke of Lauderdale, Scottish politician, died. He was Charles II's deputy in Scotland.
24 August 1947 First Edinburgh International Festival.
25 August 1330 Teba  
The Battle of Teba   This is  the origin of  the real "Braveheart" story. When Robert the Bruce died in 1329 his heart was removed and embalmed.  According to many accounts, starting with 14th Century John Barbour's "The Bruce", and  including that of the  Lockhart family, whose name derives from the subsequent adventure,  as  The Bruce requested, his heart was to be taken to Jerusalem by Sir James Douglas, known as "The Black Douglas" , accompanied by Sir William St Clair of Roslin, Sir Robert and Sir Walter Logan, Sir William Keith, Sir Alan Cathcart and Sir Symon Loccard of Lee, and one other knight unnamed. 
A monument in Teba reads "Sir James Douglas most loyal comrade in arms of Robert the Bruce King of Scots while on his way to present the Heart of Bruce at the church of the Most Holy Sepulchre Jerusalem the good Sir James turned aside to support King Alfonso XI capture the strategic Castle of the Stars Teba & was slain in battle August 25 1330"
25 August 1819 James Watt, developer of the steam engine, died.
25 August 1875 John Buchan, novelist and statesman who served as Governor General of Canada died.
25 August 1930 The actor, Sir Sean Connery, was born in the Fountainbridge area of Edinburgh.
25 August 1942 The Duke of Kent and all but the rear gunner Flt/Sgt Andrew Jack were killed when his Sunderland Flying Boat W4026 crashed
into the Eagle's Rock, near Berriedale, Caithness
26 August 1612
300  Scottish Mercenaries, in 3 companies of 100 each  led by acting Lieutenant Colonel (substantive Captain) Alexander Ramsay were ambushed and defeated by Norwegian Militia at Kringen.  For a long time the Norwegian's believed one of the company commanders from Caithness, George Sinclair, killed there, had been the leader and the battle has long been associated with Sinclair.  Of the 134 who survived the battle, only 18 were taken to Oslo, and 4 officers sent to Copenhagen, 4 repatriated, and 1 junior officer was later sent home. Initial Norwegian reports said there were 550 Scots and 450 Norwegians present.  By the 19th century the  Scots number had inflated to 900.  2012 marked the 400th Anniversary.
26 August 1875
John Buchan, novelist and statesman who served as Governor General of Canada born in Perth.
27 August 1472
Pope Sixtus IV's Bull erected the See of St. Andrews into an archbishopric, and its cathedral into the metropolitan church for the whole of Scotland.
27 August 1748 James Thomson, Poet and author of "Rule Britannia" died.
27 August 1784 James Tytler made the first hot air balloon flight in Britain, ascending some 300 feet from Comely Garden and landing in Restalrig Road.
28 August 1296 Edward I of England held a "parliament" at Berwick and required all prominent  Scots to swear allegiance to him. Their names were recorded in the "Ragman Roll",  so called, it is believed, from the tangle of seals attached thereto. (There was an earlier "Ragman Roll" in 1291.)
28 August 1640 The Battle of Newburn on Tyne. An experienced Scots Army under Alexander Leslie, the Earl of Leven defeated a smaller and less experienced English force, during the Second Bishops' War, as a result of Charles I's attempt to impose the Anglican  Prayer Book in Scotland.
29 August 1797 12 demonstrators against Militia recruitment are killed by the Cinque Ports Dragoons at Tranent.
29 August 1930 The last 36 inhabitants leave St Kilda.
30 August 1856
Sir John Ross, Scots Arctic Explorer died.
31 August 1805 Dr James Currie, biographer of Robert Burns, died.